Like the word “Speculate,” the concepts in each of the  key words related to Contingent Beings (CB)–Possible, Potential, Becoming, Expectations–can each go in opposite directions in whatever meanings and definitions are assigned to them and thereby give “SEEMS” true conclusions in both directions at once. One reason is their Viable and/or Non-viable aspects enable one to creatively design many kinds of Symbols representing CB–each used in different contexts or proportions so that new, different contexts and proportions themselves become Symbols of things never before Symbolized–or else Symbolized previously in different ways. As a result, CBs have countless applications. These key words find a place in questions raised about Being and Existence; Cause and Effect; Judgment and Reasoning; Happenings or Events; what to believe or not about the actions and decisions of humans, human history, and social institutions. This story starts with ancient Greeks, after their borrowings of African Logic, set out to describe the rational principle considered to pervade the Cosmos and that was linked to its language and logic with God. First, adding to their modifications of African Logic was Ethics and Aesthetics so as to thereby form the “Normative Sciences“. Out of that, they fashioned the three basic values of Truth, Goodness, and Beauty. Next, this led them to take the foundational statement of Cosmic Creation from “The Egyptian Book of Life,” which says: “I am the Eternal, I am Ra…I am that which created the Word…I am the Word….” That borrowing, put into the beginning European Bible, is in St. John’s Gospel (1:1): In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. Here, “Word” translates “Logos.” Next, were Comsic inferences made from the Normative Sciences.
            Aristotle’s study of Inferences from propositions arranged as formal arguments laid out Greek Logic. Inference is the act or process of deriving one judgment or proposition from an established other(s). Sound arguments taken depended on two kinds of African reasoning: Deduction (inference reasoning from the general to the particular) and Induction (inference reasoning from the particular to the general). A modification of African Deductive reasoning into systematized rules applicable to European Logic featured the “Premise“–a true, distorted, or fantasy statement accepted as a basis for further reasoning. This meant Aristotle departed from the African model he had learned in Africa so as to introduce the concept of a European “Alternate Distortion Reality“. It, completely unrelated to African Spiritual Supernatural Alternate Reality, is thinking about Possibilities not existing in the present–i.e. the contingencies of “coulda, woulda, shoulda”–as in what would have happened or what could have been. These Distortions (‘to twist out of a proper or natural relation of parts’) are Illusions (imagined SEEMINGLY true perceptions of reality). Such comes from having one or more of its “Thinking Tentacles” in Contingent realms which, in turn, are involved with the unreal and untrue. An example of an Illusion is the stripes of a Barber Pole that falsely seem to be  moving up or down–but actually it is the rotating of a single strip on the pole making it look like it rotates.
             Illusions may be from ignorance (e.g. from mistaken ideas) or may be deliberate measures used to misdirect attention away from Reality so as to create an uncertainty sufficient to persuade the deceived that what the fantasy produced is Reality. Among those not wanting to deal with the Truth, in order to increase their chances of success, they make the Illusion more exciting by fashioning it into a Contingent Being–i.e. the creation of a Supernatural Thing. Non-evil “Throwers” of Illusions include most everybody (to show they are important) and especially advertizers (to sell something). Their common feature is attempting to get people to believe the fantasy they present is Reality. The condition of people now believing what does not exist results in them engaging in Delusional thoughts, feelings, expressions, and actions pertaining to that Thing. Those who feel compelled to present justifications for CB will not give an answer, or give a “far out” unrelated answer, or, say the cause of its coming into existence is by Chance, accidentally, or from ones free will. So, the “bottom line” was to convert African Spiritual CB into Fantasy CB–a switch from the make-believe African Spiritual Supernatural realm over to the make-believe Material World Supernatural realm under Control of Europeans.
Joseph A. Bailey II, MD, FACS
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