BLACK AMERICAN HISTORY (4)

BLACK AMERICAN HISTORY (4)

~~1700’S: THOMAS FULLER, called “the Virginia Calculator,” was a mathematical genius — manipulating numbers in his head faster than Whites could figure those numbers on paper.  Given the opportunity of improvement, he would have been greater than Issac Newton. BENJAMIN BANNEKER (1731-1804) was a world recognized genius in Astronomy and Science. He was also a Surveyor (on the commission that surveyed and laid out the original boundaries of the District of Columbia in 1791), a  Clockmaker (the first of all Americans to make a clock in 1731), Author, Farmer, and Mathematician.  In association with being allowed schooling, his love of books was so great that he studied while other kids played.  In 1792, he published the first American Almanac and between 1792-1797, an Ephemeris (celestial map). He mastered 5 different languages.

FREE NEGROES DURING SLAVERY: Augustus Jackson was reputed to have invented ice cream.  For a long time he enjoyed the monopoly of the sale of this delectable dessert, demanding the monopoly price of one dollar a quart. James McCrummill, a dentist, “was noted for his manufacture of porcelain teeth.

~~1800’S: JAMES FORTEN (1766-1842), a Free Negro of Philadelphia, not only made a fortune out of his new device for handling sails, but was also an active abolitionist, an advocate of women’s rights, universal peace, and improvement for the free Negro. Henry Blair (1807-1860), a second Black inventor issued a patent, which was for the spark plug and (1836) two corn harvesters; Lewis Temple (1800-18) Blacksmith, Abolionist invented the toggling whaling harpoon head; Charles Brooks (1865) invented the Street sweeper truck and a type of paper punch; Henry Brown (1832) invented fire safe; John Albert Burr (18xx) invented Rotary-blade lawn mower which was patented; The following are a tiny few of Negroes inventions, practically all serving as the basis for large-scale industries owned and operated by Whites. Jan E. Matzeliger, in 1883 (patent 274,207) was born in Suriname. He  inventor of the shoe lasting machine. This was the first appliance of its kind capable of performing all the steps required to hold a shoe on its last, grip and pull the leather down around the heel, guide and drive the nails into place and then discharge the completed shoe from the machine.  The patent was purchased by Sidney W. Winslow who organized the United Shoe Machinery Company of Boston.  Matzeliger also received half a dozen patents on items such as lubricators, tread for tires, a buggy top support, and a folding ironing table. NORBERT RILLIEUX’s (1806-1894) invention of the vacuum pan evaporator for refining sugar, with high reductions in costs and labor, was too revolutionary to be denied.

GRANVILLE T. WOODS (1856-1910), called the “Black Edison” uncovered mysteries of electricity that resulted in 50 plus patents — e.g. a “third rail” now part of the subway systems, automatic air brakes, automatic cut-off switch (useful for theater dimmer lights), telegraphic devices for transmitting messages between trains (and thereby preventing train accidents), an electrical egg incubator, and he invented the Synchronous Multiplex Railway Telegraph. In completing and patenting upwards of fifty different inventions, he appears to have surpassed every other Colored inventor in the number and variety of his inventions.  While they related principally to electricity, the list also includes such as a steam boiler furnace, the subject of his first patent, obtained in 1884; an amusement apparatus in 1889; and automatic airbrakes, in 1902, 1903, and 1905.   He patented fifteen inventions for electric railways, and as many more various devices for electrical control and distribution.  Official USA Patent Office records show that many of his patents were assigned to such companies as the General Electric Company of New York, some to the Westinghouse Air Brake Company of Pennsylvania, others to the American Bell Telephone Company of Boston, and still others to the American Engineering Company of New York.  In the earlier years of his career, he organized the Woods Electric Company of Cincinnati. But it appears that most of his inventions of consequence were sold to other concerns. Sarah Boone invented the ironing board; Sarah Goode (1850s-1905), the Cabinet bed invention; first woman to receive USA patent. jabaileymd.com

Joseph A. Bailey II, MD, FACS

 

BLACK AMERICAN HISTORY (4)

~~1700’S: THOMAS FULLER, called “the Virginia Calculator,” was a mathematical genius — manipulating numbers in his head faster than Whites could figure those numbers on paper.  Given the opportunity of improvement, he would have been greater than Issac Newton. BENJAMIN BANNEKER (1731-1804) was a world recognized genius in Astronomy and Science. He was also a Surveyor (on the commission that surveyed and laid out the original boundaries of the District of Columbia in 1791), a  Clockmaker (the first of all Americans to make a clock in 1731), Author, Farmer, and Mathematician.  In association with being allowed schooling, his love of books was so great that he studied while other kids played.  In 1792, he published the first American Almanac and between 1792-1797, an Ephemeris (celestial map). He mastered 5 different languages.

FREE NEGROES DURING SLAVERY: Augustus Jackson was reputed to have invented ice cream.  For a long time he enjoyed the monopoly of the sale of this delectable dessert, demanding the monopoly price of one dollar a quart. James McCrummill, a dentist, “was noted for his manufacture of porcelain teeth.

~~1800’S: JAMES FORTEN (1766-1842), a Free Negro of Philadelphia, not only made a fortune out of his new device for handling sails, but was also an active abolitionist, an advocate of women’s rights, universal peace, and improvement for the free Negro. Henry Blair (1807-1860), a second Black inventor issued a patent, which was for the spark plug and (1836) two corn harvesters; Lewis Temple (1800-18) Blacksmith, Abolionist invented the toggling whaling harpoon head; Charles Brooks (1865) invented the Street sweeper truck and a type of paper punch; Henry Brown (1832) invented fire safe; John Albert Burr (18xx) invented Rotary-blade lawn mower which was patented; The following are a tiny few of Negroes inventions, practically all serving as the basis for large-scale industries owned and operated by Whites. Jan E. Matzeliger, in 1883 (patent 274,207) was born in Suriname. He  inventor of the shoe lasting machine. This was the first appliance of its kind capable of performing all the steps required to hold a shoe on its last, grip and pull the leather down around the heel, guide and drive the nails into place and then discharge the completed shoe from the machine.  The patent was purchased by Sidney W. Winslow who organized the United Shoe Machinery Company of Boston.  Matzeliger also received half a dozen patents on items such as lubricators, tread for tires, a buggy top support, and a folding ironing table. NORBERT RILLIEUX’s (1806-1894) invention of the vacuum pan evaporator for refining sugar, with high reductions in costs and labor, was too revolutionary to be denied.

GRANVILLE T. WOODS (1856-1910), called the “Black Edison” uncovered mysteries of electricity that resulted in 50 plus patents — e.g. a “third rail” now part of the subway systems, automatic air brakes, automatic cut-off switch (useful for theater dimmer lights), telegraphic devices for transmitting messages between trains (and thereby preventing train accidents), an electrical egg incubator, and he invented the Synchronous Multiplex Railway Telegraph. In completing and patenting upwards of fifty different inventions, he appears to have surpassed every other Colored inventor in the number and variety of his inventions.  While they related principally to electricity, the list also includes such as a steam boiler furnace, the subject of his first patent, obtained in 1884; an amusement apparatus in 1889; and automatic airbrakes, in 1902, 1903, and 1905.   He patented fifteen inventions for electric railways, and as many more various devices for electrical control and distribution.  Official USA Patent Office records show that many of his patents were assigned to such companies as the General Electric Company of New York, some to the Westinghouse Air Brake Company of Pennsylvania, others to the American Bell Telephone Company of Boston, and still others to the American Engineering Company of New York.  In the earlier years of his career, he organized the Woods Electric Company of Cincinnati. But it appears that most of his inventions of consequence were sold to other concerns. Sarah Boone invented the ironing board; Sarah Goode (1850s-1905), the Cabinet bed invention; first woman to receive USA patent. jabaileymd.com

Joseph A. Bailey II, MD, FACS